Kingdom of Stoinia
Motto: "A maioribus nostris, pro filiis nostris."
"By our forefathers, for our children."
Anthem: Marcha Real
Royal anthem: Trăiască Regele!
Long live the King!
|Largest largest city
|Recognised regional languages
|Catanian, Gara, Garāori, Indavral, Lagurian, Litanian, Paeonisian
—38.6% Stoinian Orthodoxy
|Devolved unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• Prime Minister
• Minister of Foreign Affairs
• WF Ambassador
|Court of Commons
Court of Tribunes
|10 May 1222 AD
|180,581 km2 (69,723 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• Metropolitan Stoinia
• 2022 census
|345/km2 (893.5/sq mi)
|$ 4.03 trillion
(₤ 3.35 trillion)
• Per capita
|Stoinian lira (₤) (LIR)
|World Forum Code
"Distinct branches come from the same roots."—Stoinian proverb
Stoinia, short for its official name the Kingdom of Stoina, is a sovereign monarchy spanning across the South Pacific Ocean from southwestern Bailtem (also called Metropolitan Stoinia) to eastern central Cordilia in Corinia (often also referred to as Cordilian Stoinia) as well as maintaining a dominant presence in the Central Islands through its control of Carraca. On Metropolitan Stoinia, the Kingdom is bordered by Sallodesia in the north and in the south by Sedunn and Ezervulge and enjoys a lush subtropical climate surrounding the Varcathians. On the Central Islands it enjoys a year-round tropical climate with fellow oceanic nations such as Pētea and Takāhi while Cordilian Stoinia is split between humid subtropical and warm Mediterranean climates with its neighbours of Valkyria and Huawan in the vicinity. In total, the Kingdom holds a total area of 181,750 km2 and a population of 57 million (as of 2022). The Kingdom is a unique form of a devolved unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy wherein autonomous regions hold a relative amount of power besides the King who enjoys significant, although still limited, powers compared to other constitutional counterparts. Its capital is the city of Sinaia in the Siniliu Valley which serves as the political centre. Its largest city is the metropolis of Carao which houses roughly a fifth of the population in the Shai Kong Special Economic Zone in Corinia. Additionally, there are multiple highly developed cities, having evolved from the various ethnicities within Stoinia, that serve as cultural and commercial centres such as Carreño, Milano, Coruña, Tavira, Costina, Saverno, Tianjin, and Taranto. Furthermore, Stoinia also has exclaves of considerable size neighbouring Koros and Ikaranara in northern Cordilia.
Stoinia first emerged as a unified nation at the end of the Mediterranean Iron Age roughly 1000 BC. Under the Tolosan Republic, the Latin-speaking Tolosans formed a sophisticated merchant republic with advanced laws and thriving commerce. It formed key partnerships with the Dures, Livanan polities and the Phaloecian Thalassocracy across the Mediterranean Sea. It also formed colonies on the uninhabited coasts around the Mediterranean Sea in locations of modern-day Spiras, Livana, Eria, Pelinai and Rekhivan client cities. Through a vast trade network with fellow mercantile civilisations, the Tolosan Republic reached historical heights. However, the Tolosan Republic would meet its end at the hands of the Ezervulgish nomads which sacked all cities of the Republic before settling in their current lands, though many overseas colonies would continue to become their own free states such as Spiras, Eria, Livana and mercantile republics in Pelinai.
In the Middle Ages, the Tolosan successor kingdoms largely fought amongst themselves for power until the unification by King Alexandru of Sinarion in 1222 AD. Consolidating the various post-Tolosan ethnicities under a new 'Stoinian' ethnostate where He was crowned 'King of the Stoinians'. Once the rebuilding efforts had been completed, the following King Ioan I funded the seafaring expedition of Ioan Caragiu which led to the discovery of the Garāori on Carraca in the South Pacific Ocean in 1261 AD.
What followed was a boom in navigation and the creation of a Stoinian colonial empire built on commerce and cohabitation instead of outright conquest. Pioneers such as Cristian Ghideanu, Ioan Caragiu and Miguel Malican established the vast Stoinian maritime trade network alongside Sedunnic and Myrian backers. This allowed the Kingdom to build a lasting reign across the South Pacific Ocean influencing many cultures as Tolosance languages, especially Castonish, became lingua francas across the South Pacific and Tolosance culture spread. However, this dominion did not go without contest as the Kingdom often battled with the Austral Empire over the control of its peacefully acquired colonies as was the case in Puerto Pollo. Though this contest with the Austral Empire also forged a strong alliance with Pētea and Takāhi which were eventually incorporated into the wider Kingdom after a period as protectorates. Nevertheless, Stoinia established itself as an early naval power and fought alongside the anti-pirate coalition as piracy grew rampant over the centuries.
In the Early Modern Period, Stoinia underwent the Stoinian Renaissance which saw culture flourish to new heights unseen since the Tolosan Republic. Stoinian merchants became a new prominent political class in the merchant cities that brought massive societal changes that some have classified as an early form of liberalism and democratic institutions inspired by Sedunnic Mannared. Ever since this period of cultural and philosophical change, the Kingdom solidified itself as a major cultural influence in the South Pacific as it set many standards in arts such as classical music, theatre, poetry, opera and paintings.
In the Late Modern Period, Stoinia again underwent revolutionary changes as it fought in the Elbonian Wars on Cordilia to protect its overseas colonies of Corinia and Castemura. This forged a long bond of friendship with the Weissersteiner Empire. On Metropolitan Stoinia, it would face the threat of a belligerent Ezervulge in the Marsh Wars following Peter I's War as well as spearheading industrialisation as one of the earliest nations, having Pacifica's first electrified city street lights in Sinaia. Stoinia continued to flourish for decades until the rise of communism would reach violent heights in the Blood Moon Revolts which is colloquially referred to as the 'Red Calamity'. This action hardened Stoinia's anti-authoritarian and anti-communist beliefs. As a result, Stoinia would join the Democratic Alliance in the Great War and intervene against communist factions in the Spirasian Civil War and the Dacian Revolution at the end of the 20th century. Even individual Stoinians such as Captain Andrei Șirianu have become inspirational worldwide anti-communist figures. In the Great War itself, Stoinia played a major role across every theatre with citizens from all ethnicities gaining legendary reputations such as the soldiers of the Garāori, Ipokāhi and Pētean Army Corps in the Battle of Kihei or Peo-Garanian Admiral Ryuk Dae-Jung in the Defence of Corinia. During the Cold War, Stoinia would firmly position itself in the anti-communist factions as it saw renewed skirmishes in Shai Kong with an increasingly revanchist Huawan prowling to unite the Paeonisians and Garanians of Shai Kong and Fujani. It also saw the independence of multiple exclaves in Phanama as well as granting independence to Pētea and Takāhi in the Central Islands which also saw the creation of the Stoinophile Commonwealth of Realms.
Contemporary Stoinia remains one of Pacifica's most developed nations, providing advanced health care and tertiary education to its citizens. The Stoinian economy is noted to be among the most diverse in Pacifica as it still retains large agricultural, fishing and timber sectors paired with more advanced manufacturing, shipbuilding, services, finance and technology. In addition, the Kingdom is also seen as one of the most stable countries of Pacifica which has attracted a lot of attention from migrants and refugees. Its various Tolosance ethnicities and culture have spread across the continents and are well-known for their joyful attitudes towards life. The monarchic nature of Stoinian culture has also cemented the Kingdom as the foremost monarchy of the Pacifica. This has seen the rise of the Cuza monarchs such Empress Relia Cuza and King Valeriu Cuza being coronated in Ryccia and Spiras respectively in 2022. All while the cadet branch Cúzaro continues to rule the tax haven of Conaro under Monarchy of Conaro Marco VIII. Stoinia's innovative nature also remained prevalent as it was a contributing member in the space race through the CPSC and is a leader in the aerospace industry to this day as it operates one of the most advanced national space programs. Diplomatically, Stoinia remains a de facto leader in the Tarnian League, CMEC and Commonwealth of Realms.
Despite being diplomatically influential, it only joined the World Forum on July 9th 2022 as a full member and saw its first Speaker of the World Forum, Tudor Segărceanu, inaugurated on July 17 2022. A testament to its reputation amongst the other Pacifica nations. As of recent, the Kingdom has cultivated an interventionist policy. Be it militarily, economically or politically the Kingdom is pursuing ways to ensure a stable Mediterranean Sea as well as prosperity across Pacifica Particularly its foreign investments to develop and rebuild other nations such as the United Kingdom of Emerald-Denver, Spiras, Arnchow, Snolland Aberstopia and Livana. It also is a highly regarded member and founder of the Concordia Entente in which the function of Secretary General is currently held by former General Corina Noica who personally saw action in the Denverian Civil War.
Particularly King Andrei III has been noted to hold influence around Pacifica. Attributed to Him due to His support to the legitimate government in the Denverian Civil War. Furthermore, He also is the patron of multiple Stoinian companies and clubs as can be seen in the promotion of the launch of the SK-771 Condor supersonic aeroplane by Royal Stoinian Airways. He mostly supports Stoinian companies through various stunts such as when He became the first monarch to reach outer space on March 7 2023. As a result, the Stoinian King remains one of the most influential political figures of Pacifica hosting political events like VACOS for the Pacifica Economic Forum and the Royal Siraniu Ball for Pacifica royalty. Aside from its monarchy, Stoinia is also known for its intricate tricameral political system known as the General Courts. This unique blend of a monarchy and a devolved unitary state with a tricameral framework has left many outsiders confused over the Stoinian political system.
The word Stoinian is derived from the Aegean word (Aegean: στοιά) meaning pillar. The Tolosan Republic was well known for its structural columns in their architecture and remains prevalent in ruins around Stoinia. During the unification of Stoinia under the Kingdom of Sirania, a widespread integration campaign was propagated to unite the various Tolosan ethnicities. Framing them all as fellow pillage-dwellers or children of pillars to unite the previously warring states under one banner while emphasising their common Tolosan heritage during the Stoinian Unification.
Little is known of the prehistory within Stoinian lands other than the first primitive human settlements being dated to roughly 28,000 BC. The region was filled with many different hunter-gatherer tribes until the arrival of the Tarnians which came from northern lands. No clear signs of distinctive civilisations would come up until around 16,000 BC. Likewise, Aegeans known as the Ploigoi (Aegean: πλοηγοί) arrived roughly 12,000 BC and founded colonies on the coasts of Sallodesia and Stoinia. Early city-states sprawled to form an early primitive mercantile network of civilisations. It wouldn't be long before these city-states expanded inland and practised agriculture in the lush subtropical climate of the region, further developing their respective civilisations.
Antiquity (3,300 BC - 427 AD)
Prasinian Era (3,300 BC - 836 BC)
As the city-states developed into centralised states, a new geopolitical balance came to be. Around 3,300 BC, Aegean nations such as the Bactarian Kingdom, Graecian Thalassocracy, Laenosian Kingdom, Megaran Republic and the Mekosandrian Kingdom came to early prominence in south western Bailtem alongside Tarnian states such as the Sinilian League, Corian Kingdom, Calisian Republic and the Calisian Confederation. Even the Barnu Empire would engage in diplomatic relations. Over millennia, these cities began to flourish with their own cultures and beliefs. Though as these states grew, they would inevitably turn towards conquest and thrived in hoplite warfare. The philosopher-historian Anaximander of Thassos (1052 BC - 980 BC) would become the primary source of the polities in the late bronze age, detailing the ways of life of these polities in the surviving works.
However, Tarylon (modern-day Myria) would become a growing empire that would encroach on the territories of the bronze age states. This threat would spiral a series of campaigns by King Philander of Mekosandria (1036 BC - 992 BC). Aradus of Tarylon had sent envoys to numerous states in a quest to expand the power of the Tarylonian Empire, each with differing degrees of success. By 1014 BC, Philander of Mekosandria was crowned Hegemon of Prasinia and ensured the alliance of most Prasinian states. His military revolution would unify the Prasinians and strengthen the cultural bonds between the allied states. Even ensuring his son a great education under the tutelage of Anaximander of Thassos himself. However, Philander of Mekosandria would perish in an assassination of disputed reason and see the coronation of his son, Cassander as the Hegemon of Prasinia in 992 BC.
Cassander would bring the Mekosandrian Kingdom to unparalleled greatness. After consolidating his power in the Prasinian states, Cassander set forth an unprecedented military campaign to conquer Tarylon and its empire. Over the course of five years (988-983 BC) Cassander and his generals known as the Prasinian Companions, would conquer the entire Tarylonian Empire and conquer the entire northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. During his campaigns, Cassander would distinguish himself as one of the first great tacticians as he defeated the Tarylonians in various battles. Even succeeding in killing King Aradus in the Battle of Botrys. Despite conquering Tarylon and lavishing in its famed hanging gardens, Cassander would pursue new conquests across the Mediterranean Sea. This resulted in one of the earliest large empires on Pacfica. As a result of his achievements, However, Cassander would be known as Cassander the Great or even the 'Conqueror'.
Cassander the Great wasn't only set out to bring the Tarylonian Empire to its heel through military advancement, but he also envisioned a multicultural superstate to rule the Mediterranean Sea. As such, Cassander the Great enacted policies of religious and cultural tolerance. He paid great tribute to the cultures of those he conquered and adopted the role of a demi-god that was often bestowed unto him by various populations. However, this would bring political tensions in the Prasinian states which largely wished to preserve their own cultures. These tensions would reach a peak with the sudden death of Cassander the Great in Tarylon in 984 BC as he died at barely 29 as the most successful conqueror to date. Without a clear successor, the Prasinian Companions started to carve out their own empires from what remained of Cassander the Great's empire with many Prasinian states regaining control of their lands and newly subjugated peoples seceded. Fortune would take a turn for the worse as the new roads helped spread diseases across Prasinia and decimated populations. Especially the Aegean populations died by the thousands. This paired with the warring nature of this period, weakened the successor states, allowing for a new dominant power to rise from its ashes.
Tolosan Republic (836 BC - 427 AD)
Roughly 800 BC, a Tarnian city came to prominence. According to legends, it was founded by Tolosus who was believed to be the lost son of Carassus, one of Cassander the Great's Prasinian Companions, who was the last survivor of the Prasinian Companions' campaigns to eliminate each other. Although coming from humble beginnings, Tolosa would become a military force to be reckoned with as it was constantly threatened by neighbouring states. After its conquest of the Varcathian Mountains, the Tolosan Republic expanded its influence through trade and commerce, spiralling themselves and their neighbouring cities into the iron age. With this change, Tolosa manifested itself as a mercantile republic ruled over by wealthy oligarchs. As the wealth of the Tolosan Republic increased, so did their ambitions. The Tolosans began to found colonies and conquer Mediterranean cities in the name of the Republic, mimicking the legendary Cassander the Great. This republic would also forge strong alliances with the trading powers of the Mediterranean Sea. Most notably with proto-Sedunnic Duric and the proto-Myrian Phaloecians civilisations. It would also found colonies which would later become their own nation-states such as Spiras, Livana and Eria across the Mediterranean Sea.
Though the history of the Tolosan Republic couldn't last for eternity. The Hunyars were a nomadic people that ravaged the Tolosan Republic and remaining Ploigoi cities in Prasinia. The lightning conquest by the Hunyars brought a massive societal downfall with the Sacking of Tolosa in 427 AD. The destruction of infrastructure, as well as new diseases spreading, would prove detrimental to the remaining Ploigoi population who would be absorbed in the remaining Tarnian and indigenous populations.
Middle Ages (427 AD - 1261 AD)
The Stoinian middle ages began when the city of Tolosa was raised to the ground by the migrating proto-Ezervulgish Hunyars people in 427 AD. This nomadic tribe were so ruthless in their conquest that all the Tolosan and Ploigoi infrastructure was destroyed. By using various tactics favouring horse archery, the Tolosans were quickly overwhelmed and brought into disarray by the Hunyars. Eventually, the conquest by the Hunyars brought the Tolosan cities on mainland Stoinia into a dark age and cut off overseas colonies from its control. Destruction, the loss of knowledge and disease on a massive scale prevented the Tarnians to rebuild their civilisations in the coming century. Furthermore, the decentralisation saw the birth of Tolosance languages as the ethnic groups inhabiting mainland Stoinia (Siranians, Litanians, Catanians and Castonians) grew their own distinct cultures in petty kingdoms.
Christianity would also become the dominant religion within the area, replacing the old Tolosan Sun God Sol Aeternus who had become an early form of monotheïsm in the late Tolosan Republic.
King Alexandru of Sinaia would become the first Sinaian King that would be granted the opportunity to unite all the Stoinian Kingdoms. It would take his entire lifetime to complete the task through warfare and realpolitik. Through hard work and a campaign of roughly twenty years, Alexandru reformed the different kingdoms into a new kingdom called Stoinia. Proclaiming a new Kingdom and all its people reborn in 1222 AD, the Kingdom of Stoinia was founded and began consolidating and rebuilding itself on the southwestern parts of the Bailtemmic continent. Becoming a close and trusted ally of Sedunn for much of its history.
The newly formed Kingdom of Stoinia was still rebuilding and political tensions still remained despite the efforts made by King Alexandru I and His court. However, a wealthy Siranian Baron in Calicea by the name of Ioan Caragiu had numerous theories about Pacifica's nature based on ancient Aegean scriptures and wished to explore the South Pacific Ocean, believing there to be land on the other side. After numerous cases, he finally convinced King Ioan I to help fund his expedition and left with three prototype carracks (Trinita, San Nicola & Buena Suerte). Having left in the summer of 1256 AD, they arrived October 8th on Carraca where they met the native Garāori. First contact proved difficult at first, but eventually the two people began to trade through sign boards. This would become the first step in a fruitful relationship. After staying for three weeks on Carraca, Ioan Caragiu eventually made his return to Bailtem. The riches of fruits and Garāori artisanry, brought a shockwave through Stoinia. Overnight, the squabbling political factions turned their eyes to the new frontier and the potential benefits and threats that may loom beyond. King Ioan I would continue to fund more expeditions of Ioan Caragiu and his contemporaries.
Ioan Caragiu would continue to explore the Central Islands establishing contact with similar tribal civilisations in Pētea and Takāhi in 1258 AD and 1259 AD respectively. Following their discovery, Ioan Caragiu would continue to form amicable trade relations with the natives of Central Islands, eventually coming to an agreement to incorporate the Garāori into the Kingdom by 1268 AD and naming Carraca after the ships he used to discover it. Carraca would be developed into a central hub for future Stoinian colonisation and maritime trade networks, building shipwrights on Carraca with the help of the Garāori.
While Ioan Caragiu consolidated the Central Islands, other navigators would go on to explore other parts of the world. Most notable among them were Dorin Bordea who circumnavigated Bailtem in 1259 AD and his counterpart Toloșan Casian who circled around Bareland in 1260 AD. This opened a trade network spanning from Kadiri to Fatinniyya. This discovery of riches also saw Stoinians from all over the country band together to form joint-stock companies to fund explorers to bring luxuries from around the two continents and enrich shareholders. Eventually, multiple navigators would be funded through such business practices. Most notable are Sergiu Reghea and Carlos Carullo who explored the Rainbow Islands, establishing contact with nations such as FiHami and Austra from 1259-1261 AD. Similarly Giuliano Caranci and Raúl Cordeiro explored the coast of Keyli from 1260-1262 AD.
Colonial era (1268 AD - 1476 AD)
While Stoinian navigators brought riches back from overseas, the Stoinian economy grew exponentially. Cities heavily thrived in commerce as they too began to export their specific wares ranging from glass, crops to silks. This saw the early formation of a merchant class which would gain more and more power in Stoinian society over the course of history. Especially in the Early Modern Era.
However, this economic prosperity would be halted in its early stage. In 1271 AD, a cross-ethnic plague known as the Garrish Pox would come and plague the nation. Originally a sickness from Carraca, it transferred from Garāori to Stoinians settlers who then brought it to the mainland through commerce. In an effort to contain the disease's spread, commerce was halted to a bare minimum and hundreds of people died across the many ethnicities. Similarly, Bailtemmic disease also plagued the Garāori and dwindled their population. Nonetheless, the two peoples were able to overcome the diseases by sharing therapies and by 1335, the diseases were virtually eradicated.
Learning from its past mistakes, the Stoinians would eventually explore the oceans again with a new generation of carracks with new shipbuilding techniques from Myria. The Mediterranean nation hadn't committed to Stoinia's mindset to explore and colonise through merchant posts. Instead opting to expand the trade network internally. However, a young entrepreneur named Mikhal Malik would grow tired of the mentality and revitalise the exploratory spirit. King Costin I funded the expedition of Mikhal Malik (colloquially known as Mihail Malican or Miguel Malican) to explore the western seas of the Central Islands. A storm had brought him off course, but his ships would eventually land in Transsuneria on November 7th 1336 AD. He continued the expedition along the island chain and eventually discover the larger continent of Cordilia. When he brought back the news in 1337 AD, King Costin I, sensing an unparalleled economic opportunity, made it the Kingdom's priority to explore this new continent and form a trans-oceanic trade network. This gained the monarch the epithet 'the Mariner' and He would also be the first Stoinian King to settle foot on the Central Islands as well as Cordilia. Establishing a global trade network was now the primary goal of the Kingdom as it funded continuous campaigns to explore and colonise. This continuous economic growth only furthered the rise of the merchant class and its consequences in Stoinian society.
Although Stoinia heavily focused its mercantile colonialism in the South Pacific, it did also hold colonies outside of the region such as Anserisa. However, these colonies largely remained on the periphery of Stoinia's colonial ambitions and were able to gain independence much easier. Neither did all continents have an equal amount of colonies. Stoinian colonial ambitions were largely fuelled to establish trade between Cordilia and Bailtem. Nor did the Stoinians conquer nations through brute force. When civilisations were present, it mostly founded port exclaves along the coasts such as in Narus and Actora. However, it would also engage in intensive large-scale colonisation in lands with an absence of large civilisations as was the case in Castemura.
Central Island colonisation
While Carraca and its native Garāori were the most cooperative of the Central Islanders, eventually being incorporated in 1268 AD, it also saw a unique form of colonisation of Pētea and Takāhi. Although trade continued ranging from artisanry to crops, the Central Islands nations would officially become protectorates of the Kingdom in 1352 AD and 1354 AD respectively. This marked a longstanding friendship between these nations that would eventually form the Commonwealth of Realms. Both Pētea and Takāhi would be later on incorporated into Stoinia after Austral expansionism poked its chance in the Central Islands through numerous Stoino-Austral Wars. By 1787 AD, nearly all of the Central Islands, except the Siculites would be officially incorporated into the Kingdom's administration with its nobility and populace receiving the same right as in metropolitan Stoinia.
One of the first Stoinian colonies in Cordilia was Malica, modern-day New Emral. Mikhal Malik came to the agreement to govern the colony and its native Fashela natives who revered the Stoinians as gods. The colony would serve as a primary hub between Cordilo-Bailtemmic trade before Cordilia and Carraca. Mikhal Malik's exploration of Cordilia brought knowledge of new nations to trade with. More and more navigators charted these new lands while Mikhal Malik would turn towards setting an example of Stoinian colonialism as Ioan Caragiu had done with Carraca. He was rewarded with his own fief and made Baron of Malica in 1341 AD by Royal Decree. He would continue to serve dutifully as Governor while other navigators explored Cordilia. Nonetheless, Mikhal Malik would see his children raised lavishly with his newly founded wealth.
The colony of Malica would however succumb to an unknown illness by 1556 AD and abandoned in an effort to prevent a global outbreak. It would however later be colonised by the Denvari and go on to form the colony of New Emral.
Cristian Ghideanu would be another renowned navigator. Spearheading the colonisation of Corinia in 1348 AD, he would also go on to establish port exclaves in Actora, the only Stoinian colonial holdings in Crabry. Especially Corinia would develop to become an integral overseas territory and a hub of seafaring trade. Though this wealth would also become a target for many conflicts ever since its foundation. Notably the Lagurians originated from Catanian settlers and developed their own ethnic groups similar to the Castonian settlers in Carraca. This unique melting pot would be the birthplace of many new Stoinian sub-cultures across the globe.
Aureliu Herlea would be the first Stoinian to navigate Frastinia. Eventually settling a colony in 1352 AD near the Gianlucian Kingdom which would eventually form Puerto Pollo after its conquest by the Australs. However, Puerto Pollo and Aureliu Herlea would be pivotal building stones into establishing modern relations with Frastinian nations and the Frost Empire.
Early Modern (1476 AD - 1778 AD)
1st War: Austral victory - 1589-1591 2nd War: Pyrrhic Stoinian victory - 1612-1613 3rd War: Austral victory - 1658-1661 4th War: Stoinian victory - 1683-1685 5th War: Austral victory - 1727-1730 6th War: Austral victory - 1738-1740 7th War: Stoinian victory - 1767-1771
Late Modern (1778 AD - 1950 AD)
The Marsh Wars were a series of conflicts in the early 20th century as a result of a decade of crumbling Stoino-Ezervulgish relations. Open hostilities began on 5 September 1914 and would be marked by both swithering and static frontlines until 13 November 1918. The war would be named after the formation of marshes due to extreme weather conditions elevated through trench warfare. The conflict was one of Pacifica's first wars with widespread usage of trenches, chemical weapons, tank warfare and modern infantry tactics. The Marsh Wars would go down in history as one of the most innovative wars as well as one with the highest casualties due to disease. Ultimately, Stoinia would come out on top with the capture of Sárkanyvölgy and sue for peace in the controversial Treaty of Kétvár which saw the displacement of 180,000 of the Ezervulgish minority in Stoinia, war reparations and eventual social issues within Ezervulge.
In the early half of the 20th century, communism arose in the South Pacific. A new promise had seemingly grown with the Stoinian people when the communist party had gained substantial support. Growing bolder as the largest party, the party fell under radical leadership which began to call to depose the King and form a Socialist Republic. However, the King won public support and averted the outbreak of a civil war by exiling the communist politicians. However, following the short-lived Blood Moon Revolts, these politicians would instead make their way to the eastern parts of Sallodesia and instigate a communist rebellion. Wishing to make amends, Stoinia recognized the young Sallodesian state and actively helped to repress the communist rebellion.
Location and borders
Geology, topography and hydrography
Fauna and flora
The Kingdom of Stoinia has a unique political structure and remains the foremost example of a tricameral system on Pacifica. It is categorised as a devolved unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy. Although a unitary state, the country is divided into Tribunates who are allowed limited forms of self-governance on matters such as police corps, a limited degree of financial autonomy, regional infrastructure, linguistics regime, ... Similarly, Autonomous Boroughs which consist of exclave cities operate in a similar fashion. In addition, the King also enjoys significant powers compared to other constitutional monarchies, although these are still limited by the Constitution of Stoinia. Overall, the King nowadays acts more as a constitutional monarch in a delicate and unique tricameral political system.
The General Courts, colloquially also named the Stoinian Parliament, consist of three legislative bodies: the Senate, the Court of Tribunes and the Court of Commons.
The Senate is seen as the most respectable court as Senators are typically older and serve a controlling function. It is formed of Senators who serve a term of six years and the court is proportionally representative.
The Court of Tribunes is entrusted concerning legislation on education, sport, media & culture. This is done to serve to protect the rights of each Tribunates and its ethnic groups in equal representation where each Tribunate elects 7 Tribunes and each Borough 1 Tribune respectively. Tribunes in the Court of Tribunes serve a term of 6 years and are elected together with Senators.
Lastly, the Court of Commons serves as the primary chamber from which legislation first takes form except on the matters exclusive to the Court of Tribunes. Deputies are elected in respective constituencies and serve for 4 years.
When any legislation proposal doesn't pass the Senate for a third time, the Royal Privy Council intervenes as a mediating committee to find compromises on the legislation. This safeguard serves to protect the country from legislative deadlock as well as pressure the political parties to compromise early on in the legislative progress.
The King must also sign every law to enact it and must ensure it adheres to the Constitution. The Royal Privy Council serves as His helping hands in this process and advises the King on political matters as it is mostly composed of political expert & veterans alongside military officials.
Despite the largely ceremonial policy, the King does enjoy a certain primacy in foreign affairs over the Cabinet to which the Prime Minister largely follows the course. Though disagreements have remained rare throughout history as the head of state and head of government converse weekly on political issues.
At the head of the Stoinian government presides the Prime Minister who must ensure the confidence of the General Courts and is elected through an elaborate indirect voting system using. The Prime Minister serves as the head of government and leads the executive branch through the Cabinet.
Stoinia has a considerable amount of parties ranging from regionalist to globalist, social democrats to right-wing nationalists. This abundance of various political parties makes it that sometimes forming coalitions in all three courts is considered a hassle.